Hypothalamic hamartomas are relatively rare. Population-based research has shown that HH with epilepsy occurs in 1 of 200,000 children and adolescents. The prevalence of HH with only precocious puberty is unknown. At least for HH with epilepsy, males appear to have a slightly higher risk than females (approximately to 1 ratio). HH occurs worldwide, without any obvious geographical concentration of cases. It is currently felt that all ethnic groups are at equal risk. There are no identified maternal risk factors or fetal exposures that increase the risk of HH.